With regard to the Christian view of "government" in the United States, the key verse in my view is Romans 13:1 - "Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God."
When the Founding Fathers sought to design a Government for the new nation, they wanted it to be very different from what they'd experienced in England. European governments emphasized "The Divine Right of Kings," or tempered such concepts with a deliberative body such as the English Parliment. The problem was, these governments were composed of men -- fallible, flawed (and arrogant) men. In these governments, the "higher powers" of Romans 13:1 were always MEN.
In an attempt to remove as much of the "human element" as possible, the Founders composed the US Constitution. The Constitution, a body of LAWS, set forth the guidelines for our nation. Every public servant or soldier who took an oath from that time til this, pledged to defend THE CONSTITUION of the UNITED STATES of AMERICA. Not a king, or a president, or a government...The Constitution -- the body of LAWS.
Thus, in the USA, the "higher powers" of Romans 13:1 is the CONSTITUTION, NOT MEN.
If men defy the Constitution, the MEN are to be broken, not the Law. That's what made the failure of the Senate to convict Comrade Clinton in 1999 such a travesty. The Constitution is not written in "Lawyerese" (Er, sorry PL) its written in plain English, so that anyone can understand. Therefore, if a Judge, or a Legislator, or the President himself violates it, he may (should! MUST!) be held accountable, if by no one else, then by the PEOPLE.
THe Constitution declares we have certain inalienable rights from GOD. One of those rights is that of self government, and one of our responsibilities to keep those rights is voting. If we fail to vote, we fail to follow the clear injunction of the Constitution -- our "Higher Powers" in the USA -- in our duty both as a Christian, and as an American Citizen.